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Vol 18, No. 2 (January 2001)

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An On-Line Program for Intermediate Level Latin Readings

Ann Raia
The College of New Rochelle

Abstract:
The purpose of this article is to introduce the on-line Intermediate Latin Program to potential users by describing the goals and elements of the site (see www.iona.edu/latin). The operation of the program is described in full, as well as its benefits for language education, its current uses, and suggestions for more creative uses in the classroom. Included throughout the article are observations on the program made by students, faculty, the design team, and assessors.

An On-Line Program for Intermediate Level Latin Readings

KEYWORDS

Latin Readings, Text Commentary, Intermediate Latin Program

BACKGROUND

The Intermediate Latin Program is the creation of an intercollegiate collaborative team from Iona College (the institution which submitted the grant and provided the technical support), The College of New Rochelle, Marquette University, and Saint Anselm College (see Fazal & Raia, 2000). The project was funded in 1997 under the Ameritech Distance Collaboration Grants Program, a component of the Partnership for Private Colleges campaign of the Foundation for Independent Higher Education. The Foundation was attracted to the project's promise for delivering quality education at a small private college and for bringing about collaboration among colleges in the interest of student learning.

The design team was composed of three classicists who had never previously met each other (only one of whom was experienced in computer technology), an educational technology specialist who inherited the project after it had been funded, and two undergraduate computer programmers. None of the technology specialists knew Latin. Because of the distances

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between the team members, cognitive and geographic, we divided the project into areas of responsibility which would be critiqued by the entire team to create a seamless whole. We quickly discovered that, although we could communicate electronically well enough, collaboration toward program integrity required inperson meetings and telephone conversations. The full team, which collaborated intensively throughout the grant period on design, development, and assessment, met face to face three times at key moments in the development of the program for brainstorming, assessment, and planning. In addition, we scheduled conference calls to discuss and resolve differences, shared materials on a continual basis, and communicated via e-mail and the Web.

Team collaboration was informed by substantial contributions from four outside classics professors, named in the on-line credits, who were individually invited to assess the program in its pilot phase and to submit a detailed critique of content and technology. Their recommendations were incorporated into subsequent revisions of the program. The assistance of another generous classicist with expertise in HTML also improved the final version.

PROJECT OBJECTIVES

The project had three main objectives:

1) to create an asynchronous distance learning program of readings in classical Latin which would serve as a supplement to formal course work for intermediate level Latin students and also as a model for other distance learning language programs;

2) to make use of instructional methods and instructional technologies and the World Wide Web to promote active learning, respond to varied learning styles, and increase student motivation to learn; and

3) to give students and instructors direct and continuous access to the program and its resources by making it available for use on the Internet.

DESCRIPTION

The team determined that since the objective of the program was to improve Latin reading ability, it should be as user friendly as possible, be easily navigated even by computer novices, and not have a steep learning curve. Programmers and classicists were in agreement that graphics should be minimal, clear, and functional so as not to distract students' attention

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from the Latin texts and its central instructional purpose but that links should be made to sites rich in visual images and stimulation.

The web site opens onto a screen which is divided into two unequal frames, a smaller one on the left for navigation and a larger for content. The main navigation frame consists of a narrow vertical bar which remains in place as long as the program is open. In it, six buttons labeled Introduction, Texts, Resources, Fun Stuff, Mail, and Translate allow students to move through the major areas of the program. When students click on a button, its associated content appears in the larger central window.

The Introduction is the program's home page, which may be accessed from other areas by clicking on the Temple button (see Figure 1).

Figure 1

Home Page

(Picture no longer available)

The home page extends a welcome and provides links to four orientation areas. Of these areas, the two most essential ones for students are: About this Program—a brief overview of contents, operation, and resources—and How to Navigate this Site—a guide to the buttons associated with the Main navigation tools and the Text navigation tools. The Educator Registration link asks instructors to fill in a simple form which is then

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forwarded to the program administrator, who keeps a record of the frequency and nature of educational program use in compliance with the project grant. The credits link displays a list of the major contributors to the program: Program Coordinator, Dr. Minaz Fazal, Director of the Faculty Technology Resource Center at Iona College; Content Coordinator & Administrator, Dr. Ann Raia, Associate Professor of Classics, The College of New Rochelle; Content Providers, Dr. Stephen Beall, Assistant Professor of Classics, Marquette University, Dr. David George, Professor of Classics at Saint Anselm College, and Dr. Ann Raia; Web Site Designers, William Etundi and Eddie Garcia, Iona College undergraduates; Assessors, Susan Bonvallet, The Wellington School, Dr. Judith P. Hallett, University of Maryland-College Park, Dr. Maria Pantelia, University of California-Irvine, and Dr. Thomas Sienkewicz, Monmouth College.

The Wrench button opens a page with links to useful on-line references pertinent to the program such as the Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar (1931) and Lewis and Short's (1979) Latin Dictionary; guides to scansion, rhetorical figures, and syntax keyed to the readings; classical sites for exploration, such as Perseus, Diotima, and VRoma; and repositories for Latin texts, maps, images, and classical mythology. The Light Bulb button connects to sites with diverting materials on classical themes such as crossword puzzles and games. The Letter button offers students the convenience of a mailbox for sending comments, questions, and observations about the program by e-mail to fellow students or the professor.

The Puzzle button takes students to the translation area where a second browser window opens in front of the program window. This area, which began as a simple trio of boxes for selecting the text title, writing translations, and submitting translations, was expanded to accommodate the team's translation pedagogy. Before finalizing a translation, students are taught to return to the text to check that their chosen meaning makes sense in context and to confirm that their translation recognizes the morphological and syntactic identity of the words in the sentence. The new browser window allows students to move easily back and forth between the Text area, where they can use translation supports, and the translation area, where they can compose and send their translations.

The translation window is a horizontally split screen. Its upper frame displays a list of the Latin titles in the program, each linked to the complete text of the corresponding Latin reading (see Figure 2).

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Figure 2

Translation Area

(Picture no longer available)

When a title is clicked on, its continuous text appears in the upper frame and remains there for students to refer to and even print out if they choose to do so. The lower frame contains a drop-down list of the texts to choose from, the translation box, a box for the professor's e-mail address, and a Submit button for sending the translation. Students are warned that closing the program before submitting their translation will erase their work. Students are encouraged to move freely back and forth to the resources, always present behind the translation window, as they finalize their translation.

The Books button accesses the Text area, the core part of the program in which students spend the majority of their time. It contains a menu of 12 linked Latin texts (arranged by author), introductory remarks on the program theme relationships, and a brief introduction to each author and his work. The texts were chosen with the intention of offering less traditional readings in poetry and prose together with more familiar selections, some of which are found in the Latin Advanced Placement syllabus: Catullus (Carmina 7, 10, 11), Cicero (Amicitia 2, 7, 8), Ovid (Amores 1.1, 1.9, 2.17), and Pliny (Epistulae 1.9, 4.19, 8.16). The professors divided up the texts equally and worked independently on a separate set of texts. They

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achieved consistency among the sets of texts by agreeing on how each of the resources were to be developed, by mutual critique, and by revisions in response to new insights and reviews by the team, students, and assessors.

The Text area offers a more complex arrangement of interactive materials to create an instructionally rich environment for reading and interpreting unadapted Latin texts. It contains program-specific resources geared to the intermediate level student, including easy access to word meanings, morphological and syntactic information, and literary and cultural interpretations, plus a pedagogy of questions and answers designed to increase translation skills and general understanding of Latin. Given the wealth of resources at hand, there seemed to be no educational benefit to including English translations, which, in any case, a determined student could find elsewhere.

Once mastered, students can use this common template throughout the text area to obtain the support needed for successful translation. With the main navigation bar always on the left, the central frame is divided into two unequal parts: a larger frame above containing the Latin text and Text navigation buttons and a smaller frame below (see Figure 3).

Figure 3

Text Area

(Picture no longer available)

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Classicists and designers agreed, for different reasons, that the texts, which vary in length from 12 to 36 lines, should be segmented into units of about six lines each. In this way, students can work on one small Latin passage at a time and not be overwhelmed by the entire text. Whenever they wish, students may use the Puzzle button to open another window, which gives them simultaneous access to the full Latin text and the Translation box. Movement between text units is accomplished through curved forward and back arrows found at the bottom of the text or by means of the jump box situated among the text buttons.

While the narrow horizontal frame below the text brings up glossary and parsing information, it is also the default home of the glossary. Clicking on any Latin word in the text calls up a definition of that word in the frame, and the word remains in the frame until another word is selected or parsing is requested.

Determining the nature of the lexical help was the most difficult issue before the team. After reviewing many sites and strategies, it was agreed that, given the students for whom the program was designed, we would offer a glossary rather than a full dictionary and that each text would have its own glossary for speed of retrieval and specificity of response. The glossary entry contains the nominative and genitive case and gender of nouns and all the principal parts of verbs. A selection of meanings is provided for each word, but the definition most appropriate to the context is among the first listed. The team was concerned that students at this level begin to appreciate that each word has many possible meanings, some quite different, and that words in different languages do not have exact correspondences.

The Magnifying Glass button provides grammatical analysis for each inflected word in the text unit. Because words are directly linked to the glossary, accessing the parsing information is slightly more complicated: one must click on the magnifying glass, click on the line number, and then scroll down to the desired entry. In this instance, educational needs prompted programming ingenuity. The professors were troubled that the glossary and parsing shared a common frame and were therefore mutually exclusive, often causing students to shuttle back and forth between the two while working on a translation. The programmers responded to this challenge by devising a way for the parsing to appear in the status bar below the glossary frame. (See the bar at the bottom of the window in Figure 3 above.) When the cursor is placed over an inflected form in the text and the word is clicked on, students can view the definition and grammatical structure of a word at the same time. Since full parsing information does not always fit in the tiny space offered by the status bar, the click-on parsing procedure remains an asset.

Assistance in understanding Latin beyond the basic language level is provided by several resources. The first text frame of each selection

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contains a brief introduction to the content and theme of the passage. A Microphone button connects each text unit to a commentary which contains cultural and literary information as well as additional translation guidance specific to the passage. A more imaginative form of assistance is provided by a Magister who is linked to each text unit. The Magister button, found among the text tools on the right, is the bust of a grizzled paidagogus 'pedagogue,' waiting inside a blinking circle to be called up by the student. Clicking on the button opens a smaller window in the upper left portion of the screen which contains an enlarged image of the Magister icon together with his reflections or questions in a dialogue balloon (see Figure 4).

Figure 4

Magister/Magistra

(Picture no longer available)

Conceived of as a faculty persona, the Magister asks about difficult grammar points, shares insights on the text and culture, and challenges students to think further about the passage. For the sake of interest and variety, the Magister was intended to bear the stamp of each creator's personality. Sometimes the Magister offers clues to translation, sometimes argues his opinions with a fashionable young Magistra, other times tests for knowledge of morphology and poetic practice, and yet other times offers interpretations and suggestions for research.

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Students receive immediate feedback from the Magister via a Syntax Menu specific to the program. A pop-up box confirms a correct choice and corrects wrong answers by giving the correct response and sending students to an explanation of the construction in the Syntax Menu. After reading the description, students must return to the Magister/tra, reread the question, and post the correct answer in order to move on.

BENEFITS PROVIDED BY THE TECHNOLOGY

Enthusiastic responses from the program's evaluators, students, and faculty testify that the program supports good language instruction in the cognitive and affective domains through four major mechanisms:

Accessibility

Technology gives all students, faculty, and classrooms connected to the Web access to the program's texts and resources at all times. On-demand availability makes it possible for students to work according to their own schedule. Because the program does not shut down after 40, 50, or 75 minutes, it fosters intellectual concentration, time on task, and engagement with text and professor. Susan Bonvallet writes in this regard

We are constantly being asked to individualize instruction, to allow students to create their own knowledge, to extend learning beyond the boundaries of the school, to allow investigation in depth, and to encourage collaborative work. A teacher with an on-line interactive text can do all of these.

Electronic Tools

At the click of a mouse, students can open any resource they require in order to read Latin. These resources are particularly important at this stage of language learning, for the intermediate level of language is often a tedious and frustrating one. Basic vocabulary and foundational grammar have been mastered, but students are not yet ready to face the challenge of reading poetry or elegant prose in the original because they lack the experience of reading longer texts which reflect the habits of mind and cultural assumptions of the authors. The program helps students get beyond this limitation by providing full support and easy access to vocabulary, morphology, and syntax, thereby allowing students to engage with unadapted, challenging texts on a higher cognitive level and also to focus on improving

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their translation skills. Students learn that morphology, vocabulary and syntax, the modes of expression, are intimately tied to the author's ideas and that translating from one language into another is an art and not a decoding exercise. A student currently using the program writes, "the program allows me to see the sentences in a more connected way." Another student writes

I found it effective, motivational, and interesting. All of the features, the commentary, the glossary, the parsing (my personal favorite), and the Magister/Magistra provided not only a wealth of information but invaluable resources which made translating easier than just using a grammar book and a dictionary. Having all of these resources literally at my fingertips [original emphasis] was timely and made the difficult task of translating less daunting and easier to undertake.

Rather than make students dependent on its aids, the program puts students in charge of their learning since they can call up whatever resources they need. Printed commentaries, on the other hand, place materials beside or beneath the text and force students to read through the full entry to find what they need. This self-direction and intellectual independence is motivational. One student, who echoes the general positive response, wrote

The Latin computer program is a really great idea. I enjoyed working on it immensely. Working with the medium of the computer added something to the Latin translations. Being able to work away from an actual book made it a fun experience and also increased motivation. I looked forward to going on-line to translate. I think the commentary, glossary and parsing were extremely [original emphasis] helpful and necessary.

Magister

Students can interact with their virtual professor through questions and answers and their actual professor through e-mail and translation. In one of the early grant reports (September, 1998), Coordinator Minaz Fazal wrote the following about the student-faculty role:

From a faculty point of view, working on this project highlighted how different the pedagogy of teaching and learning is when technology is introduced. Rather than "tell" the student, the faculty needs to provide resources and guides and questions. This is time-

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consuming and requires a reconceptualization of the function of the professor in the classroom. However, it is an effective method for contemporary students.

This access helps students identify and address their own problem areas and find out quickly what the learning priorities are. As one student observed, "the Magister's questions keep me thinking about the grammatical reasons for translating each word." Students have the benefit of working one on one, at their own pace, with a patient, forgiving teacher without the fear of judgment for lack of mastery. No one keeps track of how often they look at the glossary or parsing, how slowly they puzzle out each phrase, or how many wrong answers they submit to the Magister. The Magister provides instant feedback, while the e-mail option encourages interaction with the material and the professor outside of the classroom. It is the exercise of reading, the frequency of reference, and the trial and error of forging a translation that ultimately advance language learning.

Hyperlinking

With hyperlinked texts, students do not need to follow lockstep, linear, sequential learning. Hyperlinked texts are "structured in layers" (Susan Bonvallet), connecting language and culture. Students are invited to create their own order, to explore information when it strikes their interests, and to make their own meaning. The program permits students to orchestrate their own lessons at their own pace and access the materials they need for effective translation and understanding of context. In this way, instruction becomes personalized and individualized, responding to various learning styles and encourages student independence, intellectual activity, and time on task.

USE

Under the terms of the project's grant, Iona College agreed to make this program indefinitely available on the Web for general use. During the program's extensive pilot period (ending in December, 1999), the three classics professors used it with their classes and encouraged a small number of colleagues to explore it and to test it with their high school or college students. The program was exhibited by the designers at meetings of the Classical Association of the Empire State, the Classical Association of the Atlantic States, and the New England Classical Association, as well as on their campuses. It is listed among recommended sites on VRoma and by McManus and Colakis (forthcoming). The final version of the

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program was recently given a positive assessment by Ruebel (2000).

The program was intended to be an electronic reading supplement for traditional intermediate level Latin courses taught by a live instructor. The experience of designing the program collaboratively at a distance confirmed the professors' conviction that the combination of the electronic experience with an in-class experience was the best formula for language learning at this level, even for a language that did not emphasize the spoken component. From colleague reports and student feedback, we find that indeed this mix is the preferred pedagogy.

Because of its flexibility, the program can actually be used with students at many levels. Teachers can focus beginning students' attention on simple translations, ask advanced students to perform higher tasks, and assign one unit of text or the entire selection for translation. Registrations and positive comments have been received from high schools and colleges in Switzerland, Germany, and many states across the U.S. Comments from these institutions have indicated intentions to use the program with students at very different stages of language mastery: Latin 4 and AP Latin on the high school level, and first, second, and third year Latin on the college level. Other uses that have been reported include assignments for students who require extra help and practice in translating Catullus and Ovid, optional additional readings for good students as enrichment or extra credit, a personal refresher course, a component of a third semester Latin tutorial syllabus, and a preliminary step to designing text commentaries.

ADDITIONAL POSSIBILITIES

Since one of the project's objectives is to give students and instructors direct and continuous access to the program, Iona College has placed the Latin program on its server and made it available for general use. As a result, teachers are free to use the program as it was originally designed, for supplemental, independent student reading. However, the program can be used in many other creative ways to enhance the study of Latin. A few ideas follow, some of which are already in practice.

Instructional Model

The program serves as a useful model of how language educators can take advantage of new technologies to develop better language students. Although students are engaged by the program and actively seek out resources and construct meaning, they are still utilizing materials which have been collected and prepared for them. Once students have had the

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experience using a ready-made program, they can be encouraged to imitate it by writing text commentaries of their own on short texts or portions of a larger text. Certainly a program of this scale and complexity is beyond the ability of most language students to replicate, but they can easily be taught to construct a text commentary using the tables tool of any Web-authoring software. The commentary can be placed on line for the class to use in translating at sight or, in cases of limited access to computers, can be shared in hard copy.

Several instructors report the successful use of such assignments, with the caveat that the assignments are time-consuming to plan and execute. Students become excited about doing the research necessary to publish a resource to share with fellow students. The virtue of such an assignment is that students choose to spend more time than expected on collaborative assignments involving computer technology. Language educators are aware that these are exactly the activities that lead to better language acquisition.

A good model for text-commentary instruction is John Gruber-Miller's (1999) on-line assignment to his Greek class at Cornell College which does not require the use of technology at all for its completion. Barbara McManus (this issue) discusses the value of student-produced commentaries situated in an on-line virtual environment, the VRoma MOO. Allison Barker of St. Paul's School (1999) has created a sample commentary on Lucretius for her students to use as a model for their text-commentary assignment. She finds it best to limit her assignment and to be very specific about her expectations (e.g., "ten lines of text, five links to images, five poetic devices, five links to related information").

The most ambitious use of a text-commentary assignment for language students that this writer knows of is the collaborative on-line project designed by Susan Bonvallet of the Wellington School and Judith de Luce and Stephen Nimis (1998) of Miami University (Ohio). Their advanced Latin students collaborated across distances both geographic and academic to create an on-line resource-rich commentary to Plautus' Aulularia. As Bonvallet, et al. (1998) described the value of the project, "Suddenly two very small classes became one with greater numbers and greater diversity of opinion. Group discussion could take place on the net or via e-mail; and collaborative projects could be added to the test/commentary page. You don't really need a TV classroom to do this." The result of their collaboration has been published on VRoma and can be used not only by Latin students but also by students in civilization and culture courses. For example, the writer's nonmajor students in an ancient comedy class in translation find it fascinating to use.

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Advanced Placement Exam Preparation

Advanced Placement (AP) Latin teachers can encourage their students who are preparing to take the Advanced Placement Latin exam in Catullus or Ovid to use the program to review their prepared translations. The on-line texts make such a review more interesting. Students can be asked to keep a list of the words they need to access through the glossary, the parsing tools, and their incorrect Magister responses. They can keep a journal in which they enter new material found in the commentary or any questions that arise as they are working. Finally, they can be assigned to read one of the program texts not on the AP syllabus in order to prepare themselves for the sight translation portion of the exam.

Class Projects

The program texts may be used for an in-class midterm exam, a take-home exam, a group project, or as a final exam taken on line in a computer classroom. The program can also be used for sight-reading in class after class work is completed or designated as an assignment and class use one day a week in a computer classroom. If access to technology is limited, the teacher can take the entire class through the text using one computer with a projection system. Students can read the Latin aloud together or individually, scanning the poetry at sight, with the teacher accessing only those resources requested by the students.

Lexical Projects

Students can be assigned a variety of independent or group lexical projects using the glossary and on-line dictionaries. English word-derivation assignments based on text vocabulary are useful for committing word meanings to memory. In the program, the Magister often suggests to students that they refer to a larger dictionary for words being used metaphorically or when knowledge of their use in cultural context would enrich appreciation of the poet's art. The Lewis and Short Latin Dictionary located on line at the Perseus site contains comprehensive entries as well as word-frequency reports on words used in its Latin text base and a list of quotations from texts containing the word in question, in both Latin and English. Students can be asked to find out how often the word appears in the text being read or in other texts, and a review of the quotations can reveal which of the word's array of meanings is favored by the author by other Latin authors. A good example of such an assignment is Martin's (1995) on-line assignment for his Herodotus class at Holy Cross University.

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This type of lexical assignment will help to pry intermediate-level students from the habit of decoding Latin words into English, enhance their awareness of lexical variety and nuance, and increase their tolerance for and enjoyment of the ambiguity of language. The writer has used such dictionary assignments with both Latin and Greek students at all levels, and the students, after being initially intimidated, have invariably found them instructive and absorbing especially when they share the process and their findings with their classmates.

Cultural References

Students can be assigned to locate images on the Web and put together a collection of sites that illustrates cultural references in the texts. If their computer literacy is high, they might even produce a slide show of images, for example, statues of Aphrodite, her temples, attributes and rites associated with her (e.g., weddings); a country estate and a town villa with their characteristic accessories and room plans; Roman soldiers from different periods undertaking various tasks; and a forum with its vendors, buildings, monuments, and distinctive layout.

CONCLUSION

It must be said that the primary reason for undertaking the time consuming integration of computers into the language classroom is that the use of computers increases student language learning and motivation. Responses to the Intermediate Latin Program have indicated that the efforts expended to create and refine this program have indeed borne fruit. At the outset of testing the pilot program with students, the writer wrote the following journal entry:

I'm not sure they're translating better—it's too early to tell. What is clear is that their translations are more careful and accurate because: 1. They spend more time at them; 2. They do them in blocks of uninterrupted time; 3. They concentrate when on the computer; 4. They consult dictionary and syntax aids because it's easy and fun, whereas they would be loathe to do so as much if they had to flip dictionaries and grammars or look up cultural information; 4. They are more aware of what their knowledge gaps in Latin are, but are now eager to do homework! 5. They don't complain about how much homework I give them. At this point it is very important for them to read as much Latin as possible—they pretty much know the grammar rules, but they don't know how to apply them.

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At mid-point of the pilot testing, one of the assessors, Dr. Thomas J. Sienkewicz of Monmouth College, wrote

The potential for accelerating language learning is more difficult to assess at this point in time. Clearly, some data will have to be gathered in order to evaluate the effectiveness of this web site as a means to improving language learning. However, it is likely that this web site will accelerate language learning because it reinforces in a different medium the skills and knowledge presented in the classroom and allows the student to work at his or her own pace in comprehending each reading passage.

At the end of the pilot semester, one of the faculty at Saint Anselm College reviewed the program as follows:

I can say that the majority of the two classes (50+ students) were very interested. After studying Catullus 7 from the web page and Wheelock's (1995) Latin, the class as a whole did a much better job translating in class than they had done with the previous reading (Cicero), which they learned from Wheelock's Latin alone. For my part, I think it is great.

REFERENCES

Barker, A. (1999). Project template: Lucretius DRN I, 1-13 [On-line]. Available: www.vroma.org/~abarker/commtemp.html

Bonvallet, S., de Luce, J., & Nimis, S. (1998). Plautus' Aulularia [On-line]. Available: www.vroma.org/~plautus/aulu.main.html

Fazal, M., & Raia, A. (2000). Old wine in a new bottle: Latin via the 'net [On-line]. Available: www.iona.edu/latin/caas/

Greenough, J. G., Kittredge, G. L., Howard, A. A., & D'Ooge, B. L. (Eds.). (1931). Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar. Boston: Ginn.

Gruber-Miller, J. (1999). Commentary assignment [On-line]. Available: cornell-iowa.edu/classical_studies/greek/comment.html

Martin, T. (1995). Perseus assignment: Herodotus class [On-line]. Available: www.perseus.tufts.edu/classes/TMHerodotus.95s.html#Perseus Assignment

McManus, B. & Colakis, M. (forthcoming). Internet resources for AP Latin. Teacher's guide to Advanced Placement courses in Latin. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

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Ruebel, J. (2000). [Review] Intermediate Latin: An online supplement to intermediate Latin. Bryn Mawr Electronic Resources Review [On-line]: Available: www.csanet.org/bmerr/2000/RuebeIntLaAug.html

Wheelock, F. M., & Lafleur, R. A. (1995). Latin (5th ed.). New York: Harper Collins.

AUTHOR'S BIODATA

Ann Raia is Associate Professor of Classics at The College of New Rochelle in New York where she has taught Latin, Greek, and Humanities courses since 1964 as well as having founded the Honors Program in 1974 and directed it since that time. She is currently serving a three-year term on the Executive Committee of the National Collegiate Honors Council (NCHC). She has written a number of articles for the NCHC Journal and newsletter on honors in small colleges, honors and the classics, assessment, and Honors Semesters. In 1998, she became a member of the core faculty of the VRoma Project. At present she is President of the New York Classical Club.

AUTHOR'S ADDRESS

Ann R. Raia

29 Castle Place

Department of Modern and Classical Languages

The College of New Rochelle

New Rochelle, New York 10805

Phone: 914/654-5398

Fax: 914/654-5259

E-mail: araia@cnr.edu

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